Note: This thread is related to #Coronavirus #COVID19

Follow the World Health Organization's instructions to reduce your risk of infection:

1/ Frequently clean hands by using alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.

2/ When coughing and sneezing cover mouth and nose with flexed elbow or tissue - throw issue away immediately and wash hands.

3/ Avoid close contact with anyone that has fever and cough.

Mats - COVIDDash.org+ Your Authors @nuanceORDEATH Founder coviddash.org/ - volunteer for vaccine clinical trials and help #EndCOVID19 faster! Former F1/H-1B. Effective Altruist. Jul. 03, 2020 9 min read + Your Authors

#MASKUP THREAD

If someone asks: What's the evidence for mask wearing? Here is a list of *SEVENTY* papers, including reviews/meta-analysis and individual studies, in reverse chronological order. Includes 31 from 2020 alone (!!). META = meta-analysis or systematic review.

0/70

1/70
"Visualizing the effectiveness of face masks in obstructing respiratory jets," Verma et al., June 30 2020, Phys Fluids:  https://aip.scitation.org/doi/pdf/10.1063/5.0016018 

2/70
"Community Use Of Face Masks And COVID-19: Evidence From A Natural Experiment Of State Mandates In The US" Lyu et al., June 16 2020, Health Affairs:  https://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00818 

3/70
"Association of country-wide coronavirus mortality with demographics, testing, lockdowns, and public wearing of masks" Leffler et al., June 15 2020, medRxiv:  https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.22.20109231v3 

4/70
"Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of COVID-19" Zhang et al., June 11 2020, PNAS:   https://www.pnas.org/content/117/26/14857 

5/70
"A modelling framework to assess the likely effectiveness of facemasks in combination with ‘lock-down’ in managing the COVID-19 pandemic" Stutt et al., June 10 2020, Proc. R. Soc. A.:  https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspa.2020.0376 

6/70
META: "Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis," June 1 2020, Lancet:  https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)31142-9/fulltext 

7/70
"Face coverings for the public: Laying straw men to rest" Greenhalgh, May 26 2020, Journal of Evaluation of Clinical Practice:  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jep.13415 

8/70
"COVID-19 and the Social Distancing Paradox: dangers and solutions" Marchiori, May 26 2020, arXiv:   https://arxiv.org/pdf/2005.12446.pdf 

9/70
"Cloth Masks May Prevent Transmission of COVID-19: An Evidence-Based, Risk-Based Approach," Clase et al., May 22 2020, An of Int Med.:   https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/M20-2567 

10/70
"Quantitative Method for Comparative Assessment of Particle Filtration Efficiency of Fabric Masks as Alternatives to Standard Surgical Masks for PPE" Mueller et al., May 18 2020, medRxiv:  https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.17.20069567v4.full.pdf 

11/70
"Reduction of secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in households by face mask use, disinfection and social distancing: a cohort study in Beijing, China" Wang et al., May 11 2020, BMJ Global Health:   https://gh.bmj.com/content/bmjgh/5/5/e002794.full.pdf 

12/70
"The flow physics of COVID-19" Mittal et al., May 1 2020, J. Fluid Mech.:  https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/476E32549012B3620D2452F30F2567F1/S0022112020003304a.pdf/flow_physics_of_covid19.pdf 

13/70
"Aerosol Filtration Efficiency of Common Fabrics Used in Respiratory Cloth Masks" Konda et al., ACS Nano, April 24 2020:   https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.0c03252 

14/70
"Epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in medical staff members of neurosurgery departments in Hubei province: A multicentre descriptive study," Wang et al., Apr 24 2020, medRxiv:  https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.20.20064899v1 

15/70
"A rapid systematic review of the efficacy of face masks and respirators against coronaviruses and other respiratory transmissible..." MacIntyre et al., Apr 21 2020, Int J Nursing Studies:   https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020748920301139 ..

16/70
"Universal Masking is Urgent in the COVID-19 Pandemic: SEIR and Agent Based Models, Empirical Validation, Policy Recommendations," Kai et al., Apr 21 2020, arXiv:   https://arxiv.org/pdf/2004.13553.pdf 

17/70
"Assessment of Fabric Masks as Alternatives to Standard Surgical Masks in Terms of Particle Filtration Efficiency" Mueller et al., Apr 17 2020, medRxiv:  https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.17.20069567v2.full.pdf 

18/70
"Visualizing Speech-Generated Oral Fluid Droplets with Laser Light Scattering," Anfinrud et al., Apr 15 2020, N Engl J Med:  https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2007800 

19/70
"Transmission of COVID-19 to Health Care Personnel During Exposures to a Hospitalized Patient — Solano County, California, February 2020," Heinzerling et al., Apr 14 2020, CDC MMWR:  https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6915e5.htm?s_cid=mm6915e5_w 

20/70
META: "Face Masks Against COVID-19: An Evidence Review," Howard et al., Apr 12 2020, Preprints:   https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202004.0203/v2 

21/70
META: "Face masks for the public during the covid-19 crisis," Greenhalgh et al., April 9 2020, BMJ:  https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1435 

22/70
"The Case for Universal Cloth Mask Adoption and Policies to Increase Supply of Medical Masks for Health Workers" Abaluck et al., April 6 2020, SSRN:  https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3567438 

23/70
META: Facemasks and similar barriers to prevent respiratory illness such as COVID-19: A rapid systematic review," Brainard et al., April 6 2020, medRxiv:  https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.01.20049528v1.full.pdf 

24/70
"Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Part 1 - Face masks, eye protection and person distancing: systematic review and meta-analysis," Jefferson et al., Apr 7 2020, medRxiv:   https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.30.20047217v2.full.pdf 

25/70
"Widespread use of face masks in public may slow the spread of SARS CoV-2: an ecological study," Kenyon, Apr 6 2020, medRxiv:  https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.31.20048652v1 

26/70
"Could SARS-CoV-2 be transmitted via speech droplets?," Anfinrud et al., Apr 6 2020, medRxiv:  https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.02.20051177v1.full.pdf 

27/70
"Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks" Leung et al., Nat Med, April 3 2020:   https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-0843-2 

28/70
"Potential Utilities of Mask-Wearing and Instant Hand Hygiene for Fighting SARS-CoV-2" Ma et al., J Med Virol., March 31 2020:  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jmv.25805 

29/70
"Calibrated Intervention and Containment of the COVID-19 Pandemic," Tian et al., Mar 16 2020, arXiv:  https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/2003/2003.07353.pdf 

30/70
META: "Effectiveness of N95 Respirators Versus Surgical Masks Against Influenza: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis," Long et al., Mar 13 2020, J Evid Based Med.:  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32167245/ 

31/70
"Association between 2019-nCoV transmission and N95 respirator use," Wang et al., Mar 3 2020, J Hosp Infect.:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7134426/?report=classic 

32/70
"Risk of transmission via medical employees and importance of routine infection-prevention policy in a nosocomial outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)" Ki et al., Oct 30 2019, BMC Pulm Med.:  https://bmcpulmmed.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12890-019-0940-5 

33/70
"N95 Respirators vs Medical Masks for Preventing Influenza Among Health Care Personnel, A Randomized Clinical Trial," Radonovich et al., Sept 3 2019, JAMA:  https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2749214 

34/70
"Modeling the Effectiveness of Respiratory Protective Devices in Reducing Influenza Outbreak" Yan et al., Sept 19 2018, Risk Analysis:  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/risa.13181 

35/70
"Risk Factors for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection among Healthcare Personnel," Alraddadi et al., Nov 2016, Emerg Infect Dis.:  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/22/11/16-0920_article 

36/70
"Surveillance of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (CoV) infection in healthcare workers after contact with confirmed MERS patients" Kim et al., July 27 2016, Clin Microb Infect.:  https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(16)30241-5/fulltext 

37/70
META: "Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis" Smith et al. May 17 2016. CMAJ:   https://www.cmaj.ca/content/cmaj/188/8/567.full.pdf 

38/70
"Transmission Among Healthcare Worker Contacts With a Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Patient in a Single Korean Centre," Kim et al., Feb 2016, Clin Microbiol Infect.:  https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(15)00837-X/fulltext 

39/70
"Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial to Test Effectiveness of Facemasks in Preventing Influenza-like Illness Transmission Among Australian Hajj Pilgrims in 2011," Barasheed et al., 2014, Infect Disord Drug Targets:  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25336079/ 

40/70
"Protection by Face Masks against Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus on Trans-Pacific Passenger Aircraft, 2009," Zhang et al., Sep 2013, Emerg Infect Dis.:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3810906/ 

41/70
"Testing the Efficacy of Homemade Masks: Would They Protect in an Influenza Pandemic?" Davies et al., Aug 2013, Disaster Med Public Health Prep.:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7108646/ 

42/70
"Effectiveness of surgical masks against influenza bioaerosols" Booth et al., May 2013, Journal of Hosp Inf:  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0195670113000698 

43/70
"Influenza Virus Aerosols in Human Exhaled Breath: Particle Size, Culturability, and Effect of Surgical Masks" Milton et al. Mar 7 2013. PLoS Pathog:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3591312/ 

44/70
"Effectiveness of Selected Surgical Masks in Arresting Vegetative Cells and Endospores When Worn by Simulated Contagious Patients," Green at al., Mar 16 2012, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol.:  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22476275/ 

45/70
"The Role of Facemasks and Hand Hygiene in the Prevention of Influenza Transmission in Households: Results From a Cluster Randomised Trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009-2011," Suess et al., Jan 26 2012, BMC Infect Dis.:  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22280120/ 

46/70
"Facemasks, Hand Hygiene, and Influenza Among Young Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial," Aiello et al., Jan 25 2012, PLoS One:   https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0029744 

47/70
"Is Abdominal Obesity Associated With the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic in Korean School-Aged Children?" Kim et al., Dec 8 2011, Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses:  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00318.x 

48/70
META: "Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses" Jefferson et al., July 6 2011, Cochrane Database Syst Rev.:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993921/ 

49/70
"Impact of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions on URIs and Influenza in Crowded, Urban Households," Larson et al., Mar 2010, Public Health Rep.:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2821845/ 

50/70
"Mask Use, Hand Hygiene, and Seasonal Influenza-Like Illness Among Young Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial," Aiello et al., Feb 15 2010, J Infect Dis.:  https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/201/4/491/861190 

51/70
"Risk factors for SARS infection among hospital healthcare workers in Beijing: a case control study," Tang et al., Oct 7 2009, Trop Med & Int Health:  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02255.x 

52/70
"Facemasks and Hand Hygiene to Prevent Influenza Transmission in Households: A Cluster Randomized Trial," Cowling et al., 6 Oct 2009, Ann Intern Med.:  https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/full/10.7326/0003-4819-151-7-200910060-00142?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%20%200pubmed 

53/70
"A Quantitative Assessment of the Efficacy of Surgical and N95 Masks to Filter Influenza Virus in Patients With Acute Influenza Infection," Johnson et al., July 15 2009, Clin Infect Dis:  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19522650/ 

54/70
"Face Mask Use and Control of Respiratory Virus Transmission in Households," MacIntyre et al., Feb 2009, Emerg Infect Dis.:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2662657/ 

55/70
"The First Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Mask Use in Households to Prevent Respiratory Virus Transmission," MacIntyre et al. Dec 1 2008, Int J Infect Dis.:  https://www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(08)01008-4/fulltext 

56/70
"Risk Factors for SARS Infection Within Hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam," Nishiyama et al., Sep 2008, Jpn J Infect Dis.:   https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18806349/ 

57/70
"Professional and Home-Made Face Masks Reduce Exposure to Respiratory Infections among the General Population," v.d.Sande et al., July 9 2008, PLoS One:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2440799/ 

58/70
"Factors Associated With Nosocomial SARS-CoV Transmission Among Healthcare Workers in Hanoi, Vietnam, 2003," Reynolds et al., Aug 2006, BMC Public Health:  https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-6-207 

59/70
"Investigation of the Influencing Factors on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Among Health Care Workers," Pei et al., June 18 2006, Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban:  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16778970/ 

60/70
"Simple Respiratory Mask," Dato et al., June 2006, Emerg Infect Dis.:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3373043/?report=classic 

61/70
"Rapid Awareness and Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Hanoi French Hospital, Vietnam," Jul 1 2005, Am J Trop Med and Hyg.:  http://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.17#html_fulltext 

62/70
"Asymptomatic SARS Coronavirus Infection among Healthcare Workers, Singapore," Wilder-Smith et al., July 2005, Emerg Inf Dis.:  https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/11/7/04-1165_article 

63/70
"Factors associated with transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome among health-care workers in Singapore," Teleman et al., Nov 8 2004, Epidemiol Infect.:  https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/55025CCAFE6E5F3B30C31ECB6E73A3D4/S0950268804002766a.pdf/factors_associated_with_transmission_of_severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome_among_healthcare_workers_in_singapore.pdf 

64/70
"SARS Transmission, Risk Factors, and Prevention in Hong Kong," Lau et al., Apr 2004, Emerg Infect Dis.:   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3323085/ 

65/70
"Mild Illness Associated with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection: Lessons from a Prospective Seroepidemiologic Study of Health-Care Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Singapore," Ho et al., Feb 15 2004, J Infect Dis.:  https://academic.oup.com/jid/article/189/4/642/839039 

66/70
"Risk Factors for SARS among Persons without Known Contact with SARS Patients, Beijing, China" Wu et al., Feb 2004, Emerg Infect Dis:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3322931/ 

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"SARS Among Critical Care Nurses, Toronto," Loeb et al., Feb 2004, Emerg Infect Dis.:   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3322898/ 

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"Effectiveness of Personal Protective Measures in Prevention of Nosocomial Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome," Yin et al., Jan 2004. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi:  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15061941/ 

69/70
"Illness in Intensive Care Staff After Brief Exposure to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome," Scales et al., Oct 2003, Emerg Infect Dis.:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3033076/ 

70/70
"Effectiveness of precautions against droplets and contact in prevention of nosocomial transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)," Seto et al., May 3 2003, Lancet:  https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(03)13168-6/fulltext 


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